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Wall Art. Supporters of Polo's basic accuracy countered on the points raised by sceptics such as footbinding and the Great Wall of China.
Historian Stephen G. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders.
They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta , who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.
Haw also argued that footbinding was not common even among Chinese during Polo's time and almost unknown among the Mongols. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate ,  no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practised in an extreme form at that time.
In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book.
During this meeting, Marco gave to Pietro details of the astronomical observations he had made on his journey. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson author of The Mongols and the West has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China".
Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. Questions are posted that, in the majority of cases, have already been answered satisfactorily Her conclusion fails to consider all the evidence supporting Marco Polo's credibility.
Some scholars believe that Marco Polo exaggerated his importance in China. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,  while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa.
And the same Marco Polo, of whom this book relates, ruled this city for three years. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou.
This claim has raised some controversy. According to David Morgan no Chinese source mentions him as either a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou — indeed no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo at all.
However, in the s the Chinese scholar Peng Hai identified Marco Polo with a certain "Boluo", a courtier of the emperor, who is mentioned in the Yuanshi "History of Yuan" since he was arrested in by an imperial dignitary named Saman.
The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city.
The date could correspond to the first mission of which Marco Polo speaks. If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources.
These conjectures seem to be supported by the fact that in addition to the imperial dignitary Saman the one who had arrested the official named "Boluo" , the documents mention his brother, Xiangwei.
According to sources, Saman died shortly after the incident, while Xiangwei was transferred to Yangzhou in — Marco Polo reports that he was moved to Hangzhou the following year, in It has been supposed that these displacements are due to the intention to avoid further conflicts between the two.
The sinologist Paul Pelliot thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration.
It may seem unlikely that a European could hold a position of power in the Mongolian empire. However, some records prove he was not the first nor the only one.
In his book, Marco mentions an official named "Mar Sarchis" who probably was a Nestorian Christian bishop , and he says he founded two Christian churches in the region of "Caigiu".
This official is actually mentioned in the local gazette Zhishun Zhenjian zhi under the name "Ma Xuelijisi" and the qualification of "General of Third Class".
Always in the gazette, it is said Ma Xuelijsi was an assistant supervisor in the province of Zhenjiang for three years, and that during this time he founded two Christian churches.
Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire.
In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1, personnel. Haw points out that Polo himself appears to state only that he had been an emissary of the khan , in a position with some esteem.
According to Haw, this is a reasonable claim if Polo was, for example, a keshig — a member of the imperial guard by the same name, which included as many as 14, individuals at the time.
Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan.
Another controversial claim is at chapter when the Book of Marvels states that the three Polos provided the Mongols with technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang ,.
Adonc distrent les. Then the two brothers and their son Marc said: "Great Lord, in our entourage we have men who will build such mangonels which launch such great stones, that the inhabitants of the city will not endure it and will immediately surrender.
Since the siege was over in , before Marco Polo had arrived in China for the first time, the claim cannot be true   The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad and had Arabic names.
Therefore, this claim seems a subsequent addition to give more credibility to the story. A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen.
Polo wrote of five- masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships, in fact, had only three masts.
Wood accused Marco Polo of taking other people's accounts in his book, retelling other stories as his own, or basing his accounts on Persian guidebooks or other lost sources.
However, neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party,  and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale".
Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din.
Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until —11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book.
According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China.
Morgan writes that since much of what The Book of Marvels has to say about China is "demonstrably correct", any claim that Polo did not go to China "creates far more problems than it solves", therefore the "balance of probabilities" strongly suggests that Polo really did go to China, even if he exaggerated somewhat his importance in China.
In , the University of Tübingen Sinologist and historian Hans Ulrich Vogel released a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues, and argued that the evidence supports his presence in China because he included details which he could not have otherwise known.
Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts.
For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there. Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness.
Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine , but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known.
Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo's description of the Far East to want to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations.
He never found the kingdom but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in , proving that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci — called "China".
Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography , ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later.
That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery [the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano] was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father.
Though Marco Polo never produced a map that illustrated his journey, his family drew several maps to the Far East based on the wayward's accounts.
These collections of maps were signed by Polo's three daughters: Fantina, Bellela and Moreta. There is a legend about Marco Polo importing pasta from China; however, it is actually a popular misconception ,  originated with the Macaroni Journal , published by a food industries association with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States.
In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. The Marco Polo sheep , a subspecies of Ovis ammon , is named after the explorer,  who described it during his crossing of Pamir ancient Mount Imeon in In , a three-masted clipper built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; the Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months.
Croatian state-owned shipping company 's Jadrolinija ship connecting Split with Ancona in Italy is named after Marco Polo.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the trader and explorer. For other uses, see Marco Polo disambiguation. Italian explorer and merchant noted for travel to central and eastern Asia.
Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century. Venice , Republic of Venice. Main article: The Travels of Marco Polo.
A miniature from Il Milione. This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter.
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Mario Eusebi, p. If this is not the case, a more likely date for their arrival is or , according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi.
Britannica , p. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton. Stubbs, Robert G. Istituto Geografico DeAgostini in Italian. Marco Polo: Journey to the End of the Earth.
Encyclopedia Britannica. The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated by Henry Yule. Edited and Annotated by Henri Cordier.
John Murray: London, Venezia [Tipi di P. Naratovich] — via Internet Archive. Birthplace of Marco Polo is archivally undetermined, but it is assumed that his ancestors came from Dalmatia.
II , Giunti, Venezia, As for Mei Lin, she's escaped her entrapment with Ahmad, daughter in tow, and when Mongols attack her on the road, Lotus comes to her aid.
That forces Mei Lin to accept that the Mongols will keep coming after her and her daughter until she ends this feud, so she leaves her daughter in the care of Lotus, the same woman who couldn't protect the boy emperor.
Borrowing an unconventional battle tactic from his grandfather Genghis, the Khan lights all of his white horses on fire and sends them charging through the enemy camp.
This ingnites their black powder, which rips through the stronghold. After some hesitance, Kaidu relents. During the melee, Byamba and Marco fight side by side.
Hundred Eyes encounters a knight in chain mail, whom he dispatches with a well-placed jab to the neck. Khutulun and Orus face Jingim but she leaves to save Byamba from a rebel.
This allows Jingim to overpower Orus and bash his skull in with a rock. Marco intervenes and saves his father from the Khan's men, allowing him to escape, which the Khan sees from a distance and once again sows doubt about Marco's loyalty in the Khan's mind.
At Karakorum, Kublai and Kaidu await the outcome of the Kurultai. Ahmad sits on the Khan's throne in Cambulac. The episode also foreshadows the plot of the show's third season with the arrival of a new adversary: Prester John.
Two storylines make up "The Fellowship. It looks as if the vote is all but settled, with the people siding with Kublai and protesting Kaidu's aggressive tactics.
The Kurultai doesn't go down without a hitch. Ahmad, backed into a corner by the presence of Jingim, Byamba, and Hundred Eyes, sends word to Kaidu revealing the truth about Jingim's son and Kublai's heir.
Kaidu uses that knowledge to blackmail the Khan and the Empress, but they're more determined than Kaidu gives them credit for.
First, the Empress helps the Blue Princess drown herself, and Kublai attempts to poison Kaidu, hoping to stop the potential leak of the information.
Kaidu gets the upper hand, though, and is moments away from killing Kublai when Marco saves him. He has come back from his banishment to inform the Khan about Prester John's approaching Christian army.
He kills Kaidu, thereby proving his loyalty to Kublai in the process. Back at Cambulac, Jingim, Hundred Eyes, and Byamba expertly pull off a raid that sees them take back control of the capital as Ahmad runs and hides.
Unfortunately for him, Mei Lin is waiting for him in his room. She kills him and, in return, Jingim allows her to leave the capital freely, with Hundred Eyes offering to escort her back to her daughter.
The first season of Marco Polo was met with negative reviews from critics. The site's critical consensus reads, "An all-around disappointment, Marco Polo is less entertaining than a round of the game that shares its name.
The filmmaking becomes bolder. The second season was met with more positive reviews. In , the President of Mongolia Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj presented John Fusco and the Marco Polo creative team with an award, honoring their positive portrayal and global presentation of Mongolian subject matter.
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Promotional poster. Historical Drama Adventure. Olivia Cheng. Kaidu Khan. Does not appear. Prince Nayan. Baljinnyamyn Amarsaikhan. After three years crossing seas, deserts and the Silk Road, a young Marco Polo finds himself a prisoner of the great Kublai Khan.
Kublai learns of betrayal by his brother Ariq of Karakorum during the siege of the farming city of WuChang, as Kublai Khan battles his warmonger brother for rule over Mongolia.
As the two great mongol armies are arrayed against each other, Kublai and Ariq face off mano-a-mano. Marco learns that justice in Khan's Imperial City is swift as it is deadly.
Marco begins a dangerous relationship with the beautiful Blue Princess Kokachin as tensions grow between Kublai and Xiangyang 's cunning Chancellor.
From Hundred Eyes, Marco learns about Kung Fu, supreme skill from hard work, and how practice, preparation, and repetition creates mastery.
The Song Chancellor sends the heads of Mongol warriors to the Khan. Marco finds out that Kokachin is the last of Bauyat tribe. Kublai's wife counsels Kublai to choose wisdom over wrath.
Marco wrestles with a flirtatious Khutulun at the feast. Jingim complains to Kublai about his humiliation at the feast. Kublai questions Marco, who lies, which has shocking results.
Marco rides to Kokachin's message tree, and is attacked by a deadly concealed snake. As war looms with the walled city of Xiangyang , Prince Jingim tests his diplomacy skills with the Song while Kublai questions Marco's allegiance.
Marco's father and uncle return. Marco seeks a sword from his father to protect Blue Princess Kokachin.