alexander graham bell steckbrief. Dieses Patent schloss somit auch die bereits zuvor gemachte Erfindung des Deutschen Philipp Reis mit ein, nämlich dessen Telefon. Bell gründete die Firma. Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung.
Die Erfindung des TelefonsAlexander Graham Bell ( - ) sich ergehen lassen, da viele andere "Erfinder" plötzlich behaupteten, sie hätten vor ihm das Telefon (ohne zu wissen. Meine Meinung Jill <3. Ich wollte schon immer wissen wer das Telefon erfunden hatte und wie man es erfunden hatte. Mir hat dieses Thema sehr gut gefallen. Als am Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden.
Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Bell bedient sich wohl auch bei Antonio Meucci VideoThe Story of Alexander Graham Bell (1939) rainbow-records.com - Help support more content like this! Alexander Graham Bell went down in history as the inventor of the telephone. He was bor. Alexander Graham Bell poses for a portrait with his wife Mabel Hubbard Gardiner Bell in Library of Congress/Getty Images A childhood illness left Bell’s mother mostly deaf and reliant on an. The Beinn Bhreagh Recorder was a regular publication, created by Alexander Graham Bell, that recorded the progress of Bell's various scientific research projects as well as local and family events at his summer home in Nova Scotia. Laboratory Notebooks - Home Notes, Volume 64, Laboratory Notebooks - Laboratory Notes, Volume 31, Inventions. Bell's genius is seen in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve that he shared with others. These included fifteen for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aeronautics, four for hydrofoils, and two for a selenium cell. Alexander Graham Bell (* 3. März in Edinburgh, Schottland; † 2. August in Baddeck, Kanada) war ein britischer, später US-amerikanischer Audiologe, Erfinder und Großunternehmer. Er gilt als der erste Mensch, der aus der Erfindung des Telefons Kapital geschlagen hat, indem er Ideen seiner Vorgänger zur Marktreife weiterentwickelte. Canadian Register of Historic Places. It will ever be a source Spielo Tricks 2021 pride to our country that the Real Rubbellos invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.
While in the U. He is best remembered as the inventor of the telephone Although Alexander Graham Bell is best remembered as the inventor of the telephone , he invented other devices too.
Bell developed several sonic technologies, including the photophone and the Graphophone He also developed medical technology.
After the shooting of U. James A. Nautical Almanac Office to develop an electrical bullet probe. The pair demonstrated the probe in the autumn of Bell later shifted his attention to aerial technology.
He founded the Aerial Experiment Association in The first telephone had two parts: a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter comprised three parts—a drumlike device a cylinder with a covered end , a needle, and a battery.
The covered end of the drumlike device was attached to the needle. The needle was connected by wire to the battery, and the battery was connected by wire to a receiver.
When Bell spoke into the open end of the drumlike device, his voice made the paper and needle vibrate. The vibrations were then converted into an electric current which traveled along the wire to the receiver.
At age 11 he entered the Royal High School at Edinburgh , but he did not enjoy the compulsory curriculum, and he left school at age 15 without graduating.
In the family moved to London. Alexander passed the entrance examinations for University College London in June and matriculated there in the autumn.
Mabel had become deaf at age five as a result of a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever. Bell began working with her in , when she was 15 years old.
Despite a year age difference, they fell in love and were married on July 11, They had four children, Elsie — , Marian — , and two sons who died in infancy.
In Joseph Stearns had invented the duplex, a system that transmitted two messages simultaneously over a single wire. Inventors then sought methods that could send more than four; some, including Bell and his great rival Elisha Gray , developed designs capable of subdividing a telegraph line into 10 or more channels.
These so-called harmonic telegraphs used reeds or tuning forks that responded to specific acoustic frequencies. They worked well in the laboratory but proved unreliable in service.
In , not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Bell completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to University College London.
His father encouraged Bell's interest in speech and, in , took his sons to see a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.
Bell was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.
Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.
His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words. Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier , "Trouve".
With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you, grandma? At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis , a colleague of his father who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion.
Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", Bell pored over the German scientist's book.
Working from his own erroneous mistranslation of a French edition,  Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.
It was a valuable blunder If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!
In , when the Bell family moved to London,  Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.
His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.
Bell" and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath , England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover.
Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him. In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River.
At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.
Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.
Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges".
Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in. Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.
But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas. In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.
There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims. On January 13, , the U.
Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.
The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.
During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".
In his 84 years, Thomas Edison acquired a record number of 1, patents singly or jointly and was the driving force behind such innovations as the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb and one of the earliest motion picture cameras.
He was an impassioned champion of a strong federal government, and played a key role in defending Serbian-American engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power.
He invented the first alternating current AC motor and developed AC generation and transmission technology. In , Connecticut-born gun manufacturer Samuel Colt received a U.
Colt founded a company to manufacture his revolving-cylinder pistol; however, sales were slow and the By turns charismatic and ruthless, brilliant and power hungry, diplomatic and The internet got its start in the United States more than 50 years ago as a government weapon in the Cold War.
For years, scientists and Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Telephone In , Bell started working on the harmonic telegraph — a device that allowed multiple messages to be transmitted over a wire at the same time.
While the Bell Company faced over court challenges, in the end, none were successful. Inventions and Accomplishments In addition to the telephone, Bell worked on hundreds of projects throughout his career and received patents in various fields.
Some of his other notable inventions were: The metal detector: Bell initially came up with this device to locate a bullet inside of assassinated President James A.
Photophone: The photophone allowed transmission of speech on a beam of light. Graphophone: This improved version of the phonograph could record and play back sound.
Audiometer: This gadget was used to detect hearing problems. Es ist ein Gerät für die Kommunikation zwischen Menschen.
Die meisten Telefone sind einfach zu bedienen, einige sind weniger teuer als andere und fast jeder hat einen.
Obwohl es moderne Telefone gibt, die Funktionen haben, um Videoanrufe, Ferngespräche und Anwendungen zu machen, um mit Leuten aus anderen Teilen der Welt zu sprechen, gibt es andere, die nur Textnachrichten und Anrufe haben.
Andere verfügen über Touchscreens, die einen einfachen Zugriff auf alle Telefonanwendungen und viele weitere Funktionen ermöglichen.
Obwohl Antonio Meucci der ursprüngliche Erfinder des Telefons war, war es Alexander Graham Bell, der all die Anerkennung dafür erhielt, dass er eine so geniale Erfindung auf den Markt gebracht hatte.
Es war ein ebenfalls von Alexander erfundenes Gerät, dessen Ziel es war, den Klang, hauptsächlich die Stimme, durch Lichtstrahlen zu übertragen.
Eine andere Erfindung von Alexander war der Metalldetektor. Er wurde berühmt, als er versuchte, die Kugel zu finden, die den damaligen Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten, James Garfield, tötete.